Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus first identified in Uganda in 1947 in a Rhesus macaque monkey followed by evidence of infection and disease in humans in other African countries in the 1950s.
From the 1960s to 1980s, sporadic human infections were detected across Africa and Asia. However, since 2007 outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
In outbreaks over the last decade Zika virus infection was found to be associated with increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. When Zika virus emerged in the Americas, with a large epidemic in Brazil in 2015, an association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly (smaller than normal head size) was first described; there were similar findings in French Polynesia upon retrospective review. From February to November 2016, WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus, and the causal link between Zika virus and congenital malformations was soon confirmed (1,2). Outbreaks of Zika virus disease were identified throughout most of the Americas and in other regions with established Aedes aegypti mosquitos. Infections were detected in travelers from active transmission areas and sexual transmission was confirmed as an alternate route of Zika virus infection.
Cases of Zika virus disease globally declined from 2017 onwards; however, Zika virus transmission persists at low levels in several countries in the Americas and in other endemic regions. In addition, the first local mosquito-transmitted Zika virus disease cases were reported in Europe in 2019 and Zika virus outbreak activity was detected in India in 2021. To date, a total of 89 countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito transmitted Zika virus infection; however, surveillance remains limited globally.
There is specific treatment available for Zika virus infection or disease. Anchor Pest Control & Trading LLC can control of the Zika where infested mainly in vessels.
People with symptoms such as rash, fever or joint pain should get plenty of rest, drink fluids, and treat symptoms with antipyretics and/or analgesics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided until dengue virus infections are ruled out because of bleeding risk. If symptoms worsen, patients should seek medical care and advice.
Pregnant women living in areas with Zika transmission or who develop symptoms of Zika virus infection should seek medical attention for laboratory testing, information, counselling and other clinical care.
No vaccine is yet available for the prevention or treatment of Zika virus infection. Development of a Zika vaccine remains an active area of research.
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